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How Are Books Made?

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The books you see nowadays didn’t take form until Johann Gutenberg’s invention made it possible to print several copies of books. The first book printed in 1455 was the Bible. We no longer use Gutenberg’s press for printing. The technology has a come a long way since printing presses were cast into iron. Today, printing companies use computers to make some of the work faster. Here are the steps on how to make a book.

  1. Manuscript. The completion of the manuscript from the draft to editing is usually done by the writer with the help of the publisher. The materials submitted to the printer are usually the final, polished form. The writer, editor or agent only needs to give instructions to the layout designer for the design of the book. Ideally, the manuscript has to be in digital form. If not, the typesetter must type the text in a computer.

 

  1. Layout Design. The writer, editor or agent will work closely with the layout designer to decide the following: typeface, page style, colors, pictures or illustrations, cover art, and type of paper and binding. With the help of computers, it is much easier now to layout a book. There are page layout softwares such as Adobe InDesign available for such a purpose. When the layout is done, a galley proof of the book is printed.

 

  1. Proofing. The galley is given to the writer, publisher or agent for checking. The galley is proofread for errors in text, layout, photos and page sequence. When this is done, the corrections are applied on the layout. Sometimes the process is repeated depending on the demands of the publisher. Others don’t need to print a galley proof and proceed immediately to imposition.

  1. Imposition. When the layout is done, the first stage of book production begins. This can be done using the computer with appropriate software. The individual pages are laid out in their final printing position. This method is called imposition. Then the imposition is used to create negatives or the file is sent directly to a printing plate. The first is called computer-to-film (CTF), the latter computer-to-plate (CTP).

 

  1. Stripping. The negatives from the CTF process are checked to make sure that the text and photo or illustrations are in proper sequence. Changes and corrections can still be made during this process. The negatives are then exposed to a sheet of aluminum called plate. In CTP, the filming process is skipped.

 

  1. Printing. The plates are sent to the printing press. Black and white pages pass only once through the machine, while colored pages require more than one. Currently, there are four processes used in printing; offset, letter-press, gravure and digital. The papers or sheets are fed to the printer either singly or through rolls of paper.

 

  1. Binding. The printed sheets are folded into signatures so they are in proper sequence. The pages can be sewn or glued. Then the edges are trimmed. The cover is attached last to the bound pages. Finally, the finished volumes are packed and sent to the publisher.


The Countries with Emerging Obesity Problems

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The Singapore government is encouraging its people to live healthy and stay away from obesity. Obesity should be fought and it starts with one’s lifestyle. There are many activities here that promote healthy living but not all people appreciate it. It is time that you consider living healthy. But before anything else, it can benefit you knowing the countries with obesity problems.

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The recent survey conducted by Social Progress Index, identified 2015’s fattest countries in the world. The index revealed more than numbers but it also looked into the cultural attitudes of people with regards to obesity around the world. The countries with the most obese people are:

  1. Kuwait

With the coming of American fast foods, Kuwait is considered the number one country with the most obese people. About 42.8% of people in Kuwait are obese. In fact, World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 70% of Kuwaiti men and 80% of women above fifteen years old are obese.

  1. Saudi Arabia

Next to Kuwait is Saudi Arabia with 35.2% obese people. This is no longer a surprise since Forbes already declared Saudi Arabia number 29 in the last 2007 survey. Because of the oil wealth and influx of American fast foods, there is no surprise that Saudi Arabia is one of the countries with the most obese people.

  1. Belize

Belize is a country in Central America. According to the survey, about 34.9% of the people here are obese. Belize is a new addition and it is surprising that it rose to number three.

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  1. Egypt

Egypt is famous for its pyramids and historical importance but now, the country is also known as one of the countries with the most obese people with 34.5% of its population. It does not end there because Egypt is also known to have the highest diabetes rates in the world.

  1. Jordan

Jordan is another country in the Middle East with 34.5% of its population, obese. More women here are obese because of unemployment. Factors like early marriage, wealth and smoking are associated with obesity in Jordan.

Other countries that are included in the index include United Arab Emirates (about 33.7% of its population), South Africa (with 33.5% of its population), Qatar (with 33.1% of its population), Mexico (with 32.8% of its population), Bahrain (with 32.6% of its population) and more.

If you notice, most of the countries are from Asia particularly in the Middle East region. These countries should act to save the population from untimely death brought about by obesity.

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How to Use Body Language to Your Advantage

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According to psychologist Dr. Albert Mehrabian, only 7% of communication is verbal—38% of what we really mean is based on the tone of our voice and 55% is based on body language. While these findings have challenged, there’s no denying that a significant percentage of how we communicate is based on our actions, not just our words.

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To help you understand and communicated with people better, here are 10 common gestures and what they usually imply, plus 5 actions that could help you influence your surroundings.

  1. Crossed arms: The person doing this is putting a barrier, and suggests that he or she is not open to what is being suggested

 

  1. Nail biting: This action indicates insecurity, nervousness, anxiety or stress. Like most body gestures, people do this unconsciously and some have even turned this into a habit.

 

  1. Scowling: A person scowling is typically judging or thinking about something disapprovingly. It may also indicate that that person is unhappy or upset about his or her present situation.

 

  1. Touching one’s cheek: This signals that a person is thinking about something, especially if this gesture is paired with a faraway look.

 

  1. Rolling one’s eyes: People roll their eyes when they’re being told something that they find dull, boring or even stupid, but they can’t openly disagree with the speaker or get away from the situation.

 

  1. Locked ankles: Whether it’s done standing or sitting, locked ankles signals being apprehensive. A person with locked ankles often wants to get away from the situation and is only stopping himself through the position.

 

  1. Lowered head: A lowered head indicates that a person is trying to hide usually either due to shyness or shame. It may also mean that a person is thinking; he or she is looking down to avoid seeing distractions.

 

  1. Stroking one’s chin: A typically male gesture (some stroke their beards instead), this implies that the person is weighing things in his mind and trying to come up with a decision.

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  1. Standing close: A person standing close to you, especially if there are lots of space around, wants to know you better or wants to be in your favor.

 

  1. Handshake: A weak handshake signals that the person lacks confidence, while an overly strong one indicated that they person is trying to dominate you. Handshakes should be firm but not too strong or aggressive.

Now, here’s five ways you can “hack” your mind by doing certain actions:

  1. To boost confidence: Raise your arms in a V or stand tall with your hands on your hips.

 

  1. To subtly tell your date you want to get closer: During dinner, rest your forearm on the table, with your fingers directed to your partner. This indicates that you want to reach out to him or her.

 

  1. To make your kid calm down: If your child is frightened or alarmed, talk to him or her in a soothing voice.

 

  1. To make people like and trust you: It’s all in the chin—if it’s too raised, it makes you look indignant; turn it too low, however, and you’ll look weak. Keep it centered to exude honesty and confidence.

 

  1. To bond with someone: Simply make brief but occasional body contacts, such as lightly touching their arms, tapping them on the shoulder or giving them a high five.

High Five Business people